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One of the important goals of problem-based learning (PBL) in medical education is to enhance medical students' clinical reasoning-hypothetico-deductive reasoning (HDR) in particular-through small group discussions. However, few studies have focused on explicit strategies for promoting students' HDR during group discussions in PBL. This paper proposes a novel conceptual framework that integrates Toulmin's argumentation model (1958) into Barrows's HDR process (1994). This framework explains thedoi:10.7771/1541-5015.1638 fatcat:aahz4tzvhbdhxgdti5gekpx7ei