Chapter 1 - Restoring Vision to the Blind: The New Age of Implanted Visual Prostheses

2014 Translational Vision Science & Technology  
Downloaded From: https://tvst.arvojournals.org/ on 07/21/2018 been conducted in which a small number of widely spaced electrodes were stimulated directly through a laboratory computer without the accompanying camera system. Recent Advances in Retinal Stimulation: Clinical Applications Of the many devices investigated, retina-based devices have shown the greatest success. These devices are limited, however, to eye diseases that destroy the photoreceptors but leave, at the very least, the
more » ... cells intact for direct stimulation (Kellner, 2000) . Of those diseases, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) has been the most attractive candidate because some affected individuals reach near-complete blindness at a relatively early age, and the inner (neural) retina is relatively spared. In comparison, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a late onset and does not cause total blindness for many years, typically leaving the retinal periphery functional. At present, there are seven major ongoing retinal prosthesis projects that have either implanted test subjects or have concrete plans to do so in the near future. The Argus II developed by Second Sight (Second
doi:10.1167/tvst.3.7.3 pmid:25653887 pmcid:PMC4314997 fatcat:lbzjkdkhyrd7zmfujg3dkhoznq