Rzeczowniki męskoosobowe a rzeczowniki żeńskoosobowe. Glosy do praktyki leksykograficznej

Andrzej Dyszak
2021 Jezyk Polski  
This article focuses on dictionary definitions of meanings of personal-masculine nouns and personal-feminine nouns motivated by masculine nouns. The definitions contained in the Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN were analyzed, which, depending on the need, are compared with the relevant definitions in the Uniwersalny słownik języka polskiego, and the observations made in this regard constitute the title glosses to the lexicographic practice. The meanings of personal-masculine nouns that do
more » ... (primarily) indicate the gender of the people they call are defined in two ways: either by the definiens of the most general meaning (e.g. osoba 'a person'), or by the hyponym of it (e.g. członek 'a member'). In definitions of meanings which suggest that the defined masculine nouns can only be applied to male persons, the noun mężczyzna ('a man') always appears as a definiens. Definitions of meanings of feminine-personal nouns always point to women: either by the noun kobieta ('a woman') or by its hyponym (e.g. autorka 'an authoress'). Comparing the definitions of the meanings of lexemes belonging to the same semantic fields (and also in both of the above-mentioned dictionaries), one can observe an inconsistent use of the presented methods of defining both masculine nouns and feminative nouns. The basic lexicographic problem is finding out which personal-masculine nouns are polysemic (they name people regardless of gender and only men), and which name only men.
doi:10.31286/jp.101.3.2 fatcat:dtt5zn3cejdbxd4jq4b6fusbda