Fully polynomial FPT algorithms for some classes of bounded clique-width graphs
Parameterized complexity theory has enabled a refined classification of the difficulty of NP-hard optimization problems on graphs with respect to key structural properties, and so to a better understanding of their true difficulties. More recently, hardness results for problems in P were achieved using reasonable complexity theoretic assumptions such as: Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis (SETH), 3SUM and All-Pairs Shortest-Paths (APSP). According to these assumptions, many graph theoretic
... ems do not admit truly subquadratic algorithms, nor even truly subcubic algorithms (Williams and Williams, FOCS 2010 and Abboud, Grandoni, Williams, SODA 2015). A central technique used to tackle the difficulty of the above mentioned problems is fixed-parameter algorithms for polynomial-time problems with polynomial dependency in the fixed parameter (P-FPT). This technique was introduced by Abboud, Williams and Wang in SODA 2016 and continued by Husfeldt (IPEC 2016) and Fomin et al. (SODA 2017), using the treewidth as a parameter. Applying this technique to clique-width, another important graph parameter, remained to be done. In this paper we study several graph theoretic problems for which hardness results exist such as cycle problems (triangle detection, triangle counting, girth, diameter), distance problems (diameter, eccentricities, Gromov hyperbolicity, betweenness centrality) and maximum matching. We provide hardness results and fully polynomial FPT algorithms, using clique-width and some of its upper-bounds as parameters (split-width, modular-width and P_4-sparseness). We believe that our most important result is an O(k^4 · n + m)-time algorithm for computing a maximum matching where k is either the modular-width or the P_4-sparseness. The latter generalizes many algorithms that have been introduced so far for specific subclasses such as cographs, P_4-lite graphs, P_4-extendible graphs and P_4-tidy graphs. Our algorithms are based on preprocessing methods using modular decomposition, split decomposition and primeval decomposition. Thus they can also be generalized to some graph classes with unbounded clique-width.