Vertebrate time-tree elucidates the biogeographic pattern of a major biotic change around the K-T boundary in Madagascar

A. Crottini, O. Madsen, C. Poux, A. Strauss, D. R. Vieites, M. Vences
<span title="2012-03-19">2012</span> <i title="Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/nvtuoas5pbdsllkntnhizy4f4q" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America</a> </i> &nbsp;
The geographic and temporal origins of Madagascar's biota have long been in the center of debate. We reconstructed a time-tree including nearly all native nonflying and nonmarine vertebrate clades present on the island, from DNA sequences of two single-copy protein-coding nuclear genes (BDNF and RAG1) and a set of congruent time constraints. Reconstructions calculated with autocorrelated or independent substitution rates over clades agreed in placing the origins of the 31 included clades in
more &raquo; ... aceous to Cenozoic times. The two clades with sister groups in South America were the oldest, followed by those of a putative Asian ancestry that were significantly older than the prevalent clades of African ancestry. No colonizations from Asia occurred after the Eocene, suggesting that dispersal and vicariance of Asian/Indian groups were favored over a comparatively short period during, and shortly after, the separation of India and Madagascar. Species richness of clades correlates with their age but those clades that have a large proportion of species diversity in rainforests are significantly more species-rich. This finding suggests an underlying pattern of continuous speciation through time in Madagascar's vertebrates, with accelerated episodes of adaptive diversification in those clades that succeeded radiating into the rainforests. Cretaceous-Tertiary | historical biogeography | lineage diversification | rainforest adaptation | overseas dispersal M adagascar's unique biodiversity has attracted the interest of evolutionary biologists and biogeographers for a long time. This island was part of the Gondwana supercontinent. As a part of Indo-Madagascar, it separated from Africa 160-130 Mya.
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