Understanding and addressing the impact of wiring congestion during technology mapping

Davide Pandini, Lawrence T. Pileggi, Andrzej J. Strojwas
2002 Proceedings of the 2002 international symposium on Physical design - ISPD '02  
Traditionally, interconnect effects are taken into account during logic synthesis via wireload models, but their ineffectiveness for DSM technologies has been demonstrated and various physical synthesis approaches have been spawned to address the problem. Of particular interest is that logic block size is no longer dictated exclusively by total cell area, yet synthesis optimization objectives are aimed specifically at minimizing the number and size of cells. Methodologies that incorporate
more » ... tion within the logic synthesis objective function have been proposed in [9][10] [11] and [15]; however, as we will demonstrate, predicting the true congestion prior to layout is not possible, and the efficacy of any approach can only be evaluated after routing is completed within the fixed die size. In this paper we propose a practical, complete methodology which first performs congestion-aware technology mapping using a global weighting factor for the cost function [15] , and then applies incremental localized unmapping and remapping on congested areas. This complete approach addresses the problem that one global factor is not ideally suited for all regions of the designs. Most importantly, through the application of this methodology to industrial examples we will show that any attempt at a purely top-down single-pass congestion-aware technology mapping is merely wishful thinking.
doi:10.1145/505418.505421 fatcat:hl7qj3mxe5abzient4jlyup6ge