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Archives of Surgery
Hypotheses: Task performance improves with the use of a balanced degree of shadow and illumination compared with no or maximum shadow contrast; and overhead shadow-casting illumination is better than side illumination. Design: The standard task entailed touching target points on an undulating surface by using a surgical hook. Each run consisted of 13 target points in a random sequence. Five settings were investigated: no shadow; 22%, 42%, and 65% shadow contrast created by overheaddoi:10.1001/archsurg.139.8.889 pmid:15302699 fatcat:j3y3w2k43raivbsqyanvlfol3u