A five-site model for liquid water and the reproduction of the density anomaly by rigid, nonpolarizable potential functions
Journal of Chemical Physics
The ability of simple potential functions to reproduce accurately the density of liquid water from Ϫ37 to 100°C at 1 to 10 000 atm has been further explored. The result is the five-site TIP5P model, which yields significantly improved results; the average error in the density over the 100°t emperature range from Ϫ37.5 to 62.5°C at 1 atm is only 0.006 g cm Ϫ3 . Classical Monte Carlo statistical mechanics calculations have been performed to optimize the parameters, especially the position of the
... he position of the negative charges along the lone-pair directions. Initial calculations with 216 molecules in the NPT ensemble at 1 atm focused on finding a model that reproduced the shape of the liquid density curve as a function of temperature. Calculations performed for 512 molecules with the final TIP5P model demonstrate that the density maximum near 4°C at 1 atm is reproduced, while high-quality structural and thermodynamic results are maintained. Attainment of high precision for the low-temperature runs required sampling for more than 1 billion Monte Carlo configurations. In addition, the dielectric constant was computed from the response to an applied electric field; the result is 81.5Ϯ1.5 at 25°C and the experimental curve is mirrored from 0-100°C at 1 atm. The TIP5P model is also found to perform well as a function of pressure; the density of liquid water at 25°C is reproduced with an average error of ϳ2% over the range from 1 to 10 000 atm, and the shift of the temperature of maximum density to lower temperature with increasing pressure is also obtained.