CD163 Antibodies Inhibit PRRSV Infection via Receptor Blocking and Transcription Suppression
CD163 has been identified as the essential receptor for Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV), a major etiologic agent of pigs. Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5–9 (SRCR5–9) in CD163 was shown to be responsible for the virus interaction. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 6E8 and 9A10 against SRCR5–9 were selected based on the significant activity to inhibit PRRSV infection in Porcine Alveolar Macrophage (PAMs) and Marc-145. Both mAbs are capable of blocking
... able PRRSV strains in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, as candidates for both prevention and therapeutics, the antibodies successfully inhibit PRRSV infection and the related NF-κB pathway either before or after virus attachment. Besides, the antibody treatment with either mAb leads to a remarkable decrease of CD163 transcription in PAMs and Marc-145. It is potentially caused by the excessive accumulation of membrane associated CD163 due to the failure in CD163 cleavage with the antibody binding. Further, conformational epitopes targeted by 6E8 and 9A10 are identified to be spanning residues 570SXDVGXV576 in SRCR5 and Q797 in SRCR7, respectively. CD163 with mutated epitopes expressed in 3D4 cells fails to support PRRSV infection while wild type CD163 recovers PRRSV infection, indicating the critical role of these residues in PRRSV invasion. These findings promote the understanding in the interaction between PRRSV and the receptor and provide novel broad antiviral strategies for PRRSV prevention and treatment via alternative mechanisms.