Transdermal delivery of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans using the combination of microneedles and low-frequency sonophoresis
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
A B S T R A C T This study aimed to evaluate the patient-friendly methods that are used in the delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules into deep skin layers, in particular, the combination of microneedles patch (MNs patch) and low-frequency sonophoresis (SN). The hydrophilic macromolecule drug fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (FD-4: MW 4.4 kDa) was used as the model drug in our experimental design. In this study, excised porcine skin was used to investigate and optimize the key
... ize the key parameters that determine effective MNs-and SNfacilitated FD-4 delivery. In vitro skin permeation experiments revealed that the combination of MNs patch with SN had a superior enhancing effect of skin permeation for FD-4 compared to MNs alone, SN alone or untreated skin, respectively. The optimal parameters for the combination of MNs and SN included the following: 10 N insertion force of MNs, 4 W/ cm 2 SN intensity, 6 mm radiation diameter of the SN probe, 2 min application time, and the continuous mode duty cycle of SN. In addition, vertical sections of skin, clearly observed under a confocal microscope, confirmed that the combination of MNs and SN enhanced permeation of FD-4 into the deep skin layers. These studies suggest that the combination of MNs and SN techniques could have great potential in the delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules into deep skin.