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S U M M A R Y Trematodes form clonal colonies in their first intermediate host. Individuals are, depending on species, rediae or sporocysts (which asexually reproduce) and cercariae (which develop within rediae or sporocysts and infect the next host). Some species use a division of labour within colonies, with 2 distinct redial morphs: small rediae (non-reproducing) and large rediae (individuals which produce cercariae). The theory of optimal caste ratio predicts that the ratio of caste membersdoi:10.1017/s0031182012002235 pmid:23442525 fatcat:pzaqzi7najcn5h6acnim2kya5i