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A novel Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) based Multi-User Detector (MUD) is designed for the synchronous Multi-Functional Antenna Array (MFAA) assisted Multi-Carrier Direct-Sequence Code-Division Multiple-Access (MC DS-CDMA) uplink (UL), which supports both receiver diversity and receiver beamforming. The ACO-based MUD aims for achieving a bit-error-rate (BER) performance approaching that of the optimum maximum likelihood (ML) MUD, without carrying out an exhaustive search of the entire MC DS-CDMAdoi:10.1109/tvt.2007.905617 fatcat:xd3r455kpjh2nedadwp7rxes5m