On the meaning of mean shape: manifold stability, locus and the two sample test

Stephan F. Huckemann
2012 Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics  
Various concepts of mean shape previously unrelated in the literature are brought into relation. In particular, for non-manifolds, such as Kendall's 3D shape space, this paper answers the question, for which means one may apply a two-sample test. The answer is positive if intrinsic or Ziezold means are used. The underlying general result of manifold stability of a mean on a shape space, the quotient due to an proper and isometric action of a Lie group on a Riemannian manifold, blends the slice
more » ... heorem from differential geometry with the statistics of shape. For 3D Procrustes means, however, a counterexample is given. To further elucidate on subtleties of means, for spheres and Kendall's shape spaces, a first-order relationship between intrinsic, residual/Procrustean and extrinsic/Ziezold means is derived stating that for high concentration the latter approximately divides the (generalized) geodesic segment between the former two by the ratio 1:3. This fact, consequences of coordinate choices for the power of tests and other details, e.g. that extrinsic Schoenberg means may increase dimension are discussed and illustrated by simulations and exemplary datasets.
doi:10.1007/s10463-012-0352-2 fatcat:yvy2y5uajremjot3jr7uxjpy6i