IL-4/IL-13 Remodeling Pathway of Covid-19 Lung Injury
Background: The COVID-19 fatality rate is high when compared to the H1N1pdm09 (pandemic Influenza A virus H1N1 subtype) rate, and although both cause an aggravated inflammatory response, the differences in the mechanisms of both pandemic pneumonias need clarification.Objective: To analyze tissue expression of interleukins 4, 13, (IL-4, IL-13), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and the number of M2 macrophages (Sphingosine-1) in patients who died by COVID-19, comparing with cases of
... pneumopathy caused by H1N1pdm09, and a control group without lung injury.Methods: Six lung biopsy samples of patients who died of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 group) were used and compared with ten lung samples of adults who died from a severe infection of H1N1pdm09 (H1N1 group) and eleven samples of patients who died from different causes without lung injury (CONTROL group). The expression of IL-4, IL-13, TGF-β, and M2 macrophages score (Sphingosine-1) were identified through immunohistochemistry (IHC).Results and conclusion: Significantly higher IL-4 tissue expression and Sphingosine-1 in M2 macrophages was observed in the COVID-19 group when compared to both the H1N1 and the CONTROL groups. Different mechanism of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in SARS-CoV-2 compared to H1N1pdm09 infections were observed. IL-4 expression and lung remodeling are phenomena observed in both SARS-COV-2 and H1N1pdm09. However, SARS-CoV-2 seems to promote lung damage through different mechanisms, such as the scarce participation Th1/Th17 response and the higher participation of the Th2. The understanding and management of the aggravated and ineffective immune response elicited by SARS-CoV-2 merits further clarification to improve treatments propose.