D76V, L161R, and C117S are the most pathogenic amino acid substitutions with several dangerous consequences on leptin structure, function, and stability

Mohammed Baqur S. Al-Shuhaib
2019 Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics  
Leptin is a versatile hormone with a variety of functions, including regulation of food intake by inhibiting hunger. Any deleterious mutation in this protein can lead to serious consequences for the body. This study was conducted to identify the most deleterious non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) of human LEP gene and their impact on its encoded protein. Methods: To predict the possible impact of nsSNPs on leptin, a total of 90 nsSNPs were retrieved from dbSNP and
more » ... ed using many in silico tools which specially designed to analyze nsSNPs' consequences on the protein structure, function, and stability. Results: Three nsSNPs, namely D76V, L161R, and C117S, were found to be completely deleterious by all utilized nsSNPs prediction tools, thus affecting leptin protein structure, biological activity, and stability. Evolutionary information indicated L161R and C117S mutations to be located in extremely high conserved positions. Furthermore, several deleterious mechanisms controlled by both L161R and C117S mutations which alter several motifs in the secondary structure of leptin were detected. However, all D76V, L161R, and C117S mutations exhibited alteration in polar interactions in their representative positions. Further in-depth analyses proved several harmful structural effects of the three nsSNPs on leptin, which may lead to multiple intrinsic disorders in the altered protein forms. Conclusions: This study provides the first comprehensive computation of the effect of the most damaging nsSNPs on leptin. The exploration of these missense mutations may present novel perspectives for various deleterious consequences originated from such amino acids substitutions. The dynamics of leptin performance, therefore, in many biological pathways, may be changed to create a variety of disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. These findings will help in detecting the most harmful variations needed to be screened for clinically diagnosed patients with leptin disorders. Trial registration: ISRCTN73824458
doi:10.1186/s43042-019-0033-2 fatcat:46vtbr5imjca3a7khrpg5ngqam