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At container terminals, containers are transshipped from one mode of transportation to another. Within a terminal different types of material handling equipment are used to transship containers from ships to barges, trucks and trains and vice versa. Over the past decades, ships have strongly increased in size, up to 8000 TEU (Twenty feet equivalent unit container). In order to use these big ships efficiently, the docking time at the port must be as small as possible. This means that largedoi:10.1016/s0377-2217(02)00293-x fatcat:rtog2u3bqrhcxkcs3u76ykhfi4