Cardio protective effect of the leaves of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. on Daphnia magna

Periyanayagam, Karthikeyan, Jegadeesh, Jancy Gracelet, K Periyanayagam
Objective: To pre-screen the in vivo cardioprotective activity of the leaves of Trichosanthes cucumerina.L Family Cucurbitaceae using the model organism Daphnia magna along with preliminary phytochemical study and acute toxicity assessment. Method: To evaluate the protective effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of T.cucumerina (TCEAE) in vivo on the lactose induced arrhythmic heart of the cladocerans D.magna (Water flea) a novel model system for studying effects of agonists and
more » ... ns on cell signalling and ion channels in situ. Initially acute toxicity assessment, total phenolic content by UV spectral methods and Apigenin content by HPTLC, trace elements by X-ray fluorescence were determined. Results: Normal mean heart beat of the D.magna at 20±2 0 C was found to be 190.47±0.54 beats/min (n=50). Arrhythmia was induced by lactose (200mM) in the bathing medium. The ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of T.cucumerina (20, 40, 60, 80µg/ml) prevented the lactose induced arrhythmia in dose dependent manner. Previous assessment of toxicity showed LC50 6.31mg/L. Total phenolic, apigenin content of TCEAE was 376.5mg/g, 0.77% respectively. High percentage of Calcium (5.84%), Potassium (5.91%), Magnesium (0.5%), Phosphorous (1.04%), Silica (0.35%) was found in T.cucumerina leaves. Conclusion: Trichosanthes cucumerina L. (Pudal leaf) has long been recognized and economically is of appreciable importance as a source of edible aggregate fruit. This study indicates that the TCEAE possesses potential cardiac protective activity on the lactose induced arrhythmia of the Daphnia heart without any toxicity and mortality. It is assumed that this may be due to polyphenolic content, apigenin, trace elements like calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, silica. Further investigation requires confirming this activity.