Gender Analysis of Income Distribution among Rural Households: The Case of Sodo Zuria Woreda, Wolaita Zone, SNNPR
European Journal of Business and Management
Despite wide belief that income distributions were unequal among the female and male headed households in southern parts of Ethiopia in general and Soddo-Zuria Woreda in particular, very few studies have been conducted on gender analysis of income distribution on rural area to empirically demonstrate both at regional and national levels. Therefore, this study intended to compute gender roles in crop production, level of income distribution among male headed and female headed households and
... households and identify major determinants of income among male headed and female headed households. This study uses data and information collected from of 154 households, of which 94 male headed and 60 female headed. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the households. The study employs Gini coefficient to estimate income distribution; and multiple linear and Quaintiles regression to identify determinants of income level among female-headed households and male-headed households. The key finding of the study is that gender was Significant at 1% probability level and had a positive influence on income. The result of this study reveal that income was more evenly distributed among the male headed households than the female-headed counterparts and participation of female headed households in crop production was less than male headed households. The results also show that annual income of male headed households was higher by 25.4 % than the income of female headed households. By using t-statistics annual income of the total sample households was significantly affected by age of household, farm size, access to credit, technology, extension visit and access to off farm income activities. All significant variables are positively influenced on total income of total sampled households except age and access to credit. Only access credit, technology and off farm income significantly influenced the income of male-headed households. Extension visit, technology and off farm income significantly and positively influenced income of the female-headed households. The findings of this study entail that policy makers should develop the extension system that increases number of extension visits to female headed farmers. Efforts should be made to empower and initiate female headed households through various programs that improve their technology uptake and build their confidence to involve in other business activities and intensify their income. It is also suggested that the issue of rural financial service receive greater attention by government and service providing financial institutions.