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Machine learning and optimisation are two growing fields of artificial intelligence with an enormous number of computer science applications. The techniques in the former area aim to learn knowledge from data or experience, while the techniques from the latter search for the best option or solution to a given problem. To employ these techniques automatically and effectively aligning with the real aim of artificial intelligence, both sets of techniques are frequently hybridised, interacting withdoi:10.1007/s13748-019-00185-z fatcat:zr5dsschzzddzgfvwu4sl2jeou