(E)-2-Cyano-3-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-N-Phenylacrylamide, a Hybrid Compound Derived from Indomethacin and Paracetamol: Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Potential

Pablo Silva, Maria de Almeida, Jamire Silva, Sonaly Albino, Renan Espírito-Santo, Maria Lima, Cristiane Villarreal, Ricardo Moura, Vanda Santos
2020 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
The compound (E)-2-cyano-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N-phenylacrylamide (ICMD-01) was designed and developed based on the structures of clinically relevant drugs indomethacin and paracetamol through the molecular hybridization strategy. This derivative was obtained by an amidation reaction between substituted anilines and ethyl 2-cyanoacetate followed by a Knoevenagel-type condensation reaction with indole aldehyde that resulted in both a viable synthesis and satisfactory yield. In order to assess the
more » ... er to assess the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity, in vitro assays were performed in J774 macrophages, and significant inhibitions (p < 0.05) of the production of nitrite and the production of cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) in noncytotoxic concentrations were observed. The anti-inflammatory effect was also studied via CFA-induced paw edema in vivo tests and zymosan-induced peritonitis. In the paw edema assay, ICMD01 (50 mg kg−1) showed satisfactory activity, as did the group treated with dexamethasone, reducing edema in 2–6 h. In addition, there was no significant inhibition of PGE2, IL-1β or TNFα in vivo. Moreover, in the peritonitis assay that assesses leukocyte migration, ICMD-01 exhibited promising results. Therefore, these preliminary studies demonstrate this compound to be a strong candidate for an anti-inflammatory drug together with an improved gastrointestinal safety profile when compared to the conventional anti-inflammatory drugs.
doi:10.3390/ijms21072591 pmid:32276463 fatcat:jzizvvpm7ncbjbsr7unbho74bu