Design, implementation, and evaluation of the constraint language cc(FD)
The Journal of Logic Programming
This paper describes the design, implementation, and applications of the constraint logic language cc(FD). cc(FD) is a declarative nondeterministic constraint logic language over ®nite domains based on the cc framework  , an extension of the Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) scheme  . Its constraint solver includes (nonlinear) arithmetic constraints over natural numbers which are approximated using domain and interval consistency. The main novelty of cc(FD) is the inclusion of a number
... of general-purpose combinators, in particular cardinality, constructive disjunction, and blocking implication, in conjunction with new constraint operations such as constraint entailment and generalization. These combinators significantly improve the operational expressiveness, extensibility, and¯exibility of CLP languages and allow issues such as the de®nition of nonprimitive constraints and disjunctions to be tackled at the language level. The implementation of cc(FD) (about 40,000 lines of C) includes a WAM-based engine  , optimal arc-consistency algorithms based on , and incremental implementation of the combinators. Results on numerous problems, including scheduling, resource allocation, sequencing, packing, and hamiltonian paths are reported and indicate that cc(FD) comes close to procedural languages on a number of combinatorial problems. In addition, a small cc(FD) program was able to ®nd the optimal solution and prove optimality to a famous 10/10 disjunctive scheduling problem  , which was left open for more than 20 years and ®nally solved in 1986. Ó 1998 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.