The crosstalk between the gut microbiota and lipids

Philippe Gérard
2020 Oilseeds and fats, crops and lipids  
The human intestine harbours a complex and diverse bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota, stable during the lifetime, is specific of each individual despite the existence of a phylogenetic core shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota on host's physiology has been largely studied using germfree animals and studies using these animal models have revealed that the effects of lipids on host physiology are microbiota-dependent. Studies in mice
more » ... ve also shown that a high-fat diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the gut microbiome. In humans, dietary fat interventions did not lead to strong and consistent modifications of the microbiota composition. Nevertheless, an association between total fat intake and the reduction of the microbiota richness has been repeatedly found. Interestingly, different types of fat exert different or even opposite effects on the microbiota. Concurrently, the gut microbiota is able to convert the lipids entering the colon, including fatty acids or cholesterol, leading to the production of metabolites with potential health effects.
doi:10.1051/ocl/2020070 fatcat:p45fyiofwzfs7m65gcnyz5m2yi