Comparative analysis of vitamin status of schoolchildren in recreational period
Leonid Podrigalo, A.G. Platonova, M. Cieślicka
Annotation. It is a comparative analysis of the characteristics of the vitamin status of schoolchildren during the summer recreation of 90th years of the last century and now. The study involved 167 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years. With the help of questionnaires developed by the authors assessed the severity of symptoms of vitamin deficiency, the prevalence of vitamin supplementation, frequency and volume of consumption of fruits and vegetables. It is confirmed that the saturation is the state
... of the vitamin in children is the best compared with data from 20 years ago, the state of multivitamin deficiency is replaced mono-vitamin deficit. The results, data evaluation and the availability of additional fortification of the diet of fruit and vegetables support the need for measures aimed at improving vitamin status. Using the questionnaire method is most appropriate for monitoring the vitamin status of schoolchildren. Introduction 1 Positive influence of recreational rest and health improvement on human functional state preconditions significance of its correct organization for improvement of population's health . Health related eating, ensured owing biologically active additions', first of all vitamins', introductions into ration, takes substantial place among factors, composing recreational complex [2, 3] . Study of alimentary factor from these positions is based on its main functions, facilitating recreation and rising of human workability. It is connected with main peculiarity of eating -its irreplaceability for ensuring of normal functioning of organism's systems and organs. Only consumption of food provides person with biologically and physiologically active substances, permitting to realize all necessary functions, to fulfill production and study works, connected with loads  . Results of the researches prove vitamin-deficit states' prevalence among population, which are promoted by complex of reasons of ecological, social-economic and psychological character [4, 5] . Hypovitaminosis is one of key links of patho-genetic mechanism of reduction of organism's immune potential, which cause disbalance and reduction of homeostasis' stability  . The existing situation conditions demand in monitoring of vitamins content in organism, results of which can be used both: as criteria of recreation's effectiveness and for analysis of functional state's dynamics. Purpose, tasks of the work, material and methods The purpose of the present work is comparative analysis of peculiarities of pupils' vitamin status with the help of questioning during summer recreation at present time and in 90-s of the last century. Materials and methods of the research: in the work we used results of questioning of 167 11-14 years old pupils, who were divided into two groups: 1-106 children, examined in summer 1993-1994, 2 nd -61 children, examined in summer 2013. For achievement of our purpose we used developed by us questionnaires, which included main symptoms of vitamin insufficiency, conventionally divided into three groups: non-specific and specific signs of hypovitaminosis's initial stage and signs of expressed hypovitaminosis's stage. Besides, questionnaires included questions about additional taking of vitamins, ratio and amount of taken food -their main sources [4, 7] . The results were processed with the help of licensed packages of electronic tables Excel, with application of descriptive statistics' indicators and determination of differences' confidentiality (of different groups) by Stjudent's criterion  . Results of the researches Analysis of questionnaires permits to speak about certain changes of dynamics of pupils' vitamin status in the process of observation. For example, in 90-s the status of most of the examined was appraised as poly-hypovitaminosis, owing to signs of some vitamins' deficit: 8.,8% of respondents noticed symptoms of ascorbic acid deficit, 54.7% -of retinol, 36.8% -of pyridoxine, 59.4% --of thiamine, 45.3% -of riboflavin, 55.7% -of niacin  . At the same time results of 2013 permit to assume certain optimization of vitamin status. For example, 32.79% of the 2 nd group questioned did not note signs of vitamin deficit at all. Other questioned most often noted 1-2 symptoms of vitamin deficit that can be appraise as little expressiveness of disorders. The data about prevalence of some symptoms of vitamin deficit are given in table 1.