Amidate complexes of the group 4 metals : sythesis, reactivity, and hydroamination catalysis

Robert Kenneth Thomson
A series of bidentate amidate ligands with variable groups R' and R" abbreviated by [R"(NO)R'] and adamantyl substituted tetradentate amidate ligands abbreviated by Ad[0₂N₂] were utilized as ancillaries for Ti, Zr, and Hf. Protonolysis routes into homoleptic amidate complexes, tris(amidate) mono(amido), bis(amidate) bis(amido), and bis(amidate) dibenzyl complexes are high yielding when performed with tetrakis(amido) and tetrabenzyl group 4 starting materials. Many of these complexes have been
more » ... mplexes have been characterized in both the solid-state and in the solution phase, where in the latter case these complexes are fluxional and undergo exchange processes. Multiple geometric isomers are possible with the mixed N,0 chelate provided by the amidate ligands, and geometric isomerization of bis(amidate) bis(amido) complexes has been examined through X-ray crystallographic and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Isomerization is dictated largely by the steric bulk present at the N of the amidate ligands, and is proposed to proceed through a K²-K¹-K² ligand isomerization mechanism, which is supported by crystallographic evidence of K¹-bound amidate ligands. The amidate ligand system binds to these metals in a largely electrostatic fashion, with poor orbital overlap, generating highly electrophilic metal centers. The bis(amidate) dibenzyl complexes of Zr and Hf are reactive towards insertion, abstraction, and protonolysis. Insertion of isocyanides into the Zr-C bonds of [DMP(NO) tBu]₂Zr(CH₂Ph₂ results in the formation of ƞ₂-iminoacyl complexes, which can either undergo thermally induced C=C coupling to generate an enediamido complex (aryl isocyanides), or rearrange to generate a bis(amidate) bis(vinylamido) complex (alkyl isocyanides). Benzyl abstraction to generate cationic Zr bis(amidate) benzyl complexes is also possible through reaction with [Ph₃C][B(C₆F₅)4] or B(C₆F₅)₃ Terminal imido complexes with novel pyramidal geometries are generated through protonolysis of bis(amidate) bis(amido) Ti and Zr complexes with primary [...]
doi:10.14288/1.0062373 fatcat:6tzingpalzcwljdp54rgomirti