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Models that combine Markovian states with implicit geometric state occupancy distributions and semi-Markovian states with explicit state occupancy distributions, are investigated. This type of model retains the flexibility of hidden semi-Markov chains for the modeling of short or medium size homogeneous zones along sequences but also enables the modeling of long zones with Markovian states. The forwardbackward algorithm, which in particular enables to implement efficiently the E-step of the EMdoi:10.1016/j.csda.2004.05.033 fatcat:7hqrekchybd2dmrqgxke3sgrhq