ÖZBEKLERDE GÖRÜCÜLÜK USULÜ EVLENME: GEÇMİŞİ VE BUGÜNÜ
Genel Türk Tarihi Araştırmaları Dergisi
The social and political changes in the lives of the Uzbeks in the last century, the national policy carried out during the Soviet period, the ideological pressure and thought have affected the traditions of the Uzbeks as well as all the peoples under Soviet rule. Many traditions and customs that have been practiced for centuries have begun to be forgotten. Many customs and traditions have changed their influence or shape. In the article, the history and current situation of the arranged
... e tradition in the Uzbeks is revealed, and its role in the life of the Uzbeks is analyzed anthropologically. In addition, the importance of the specific "ambassadors" (matchmakers) to be sent to ask for a girl and the tradition of choosing them were examined. It has been shown that in the past, the "tradition of looking and asking for a girl" was one of the basic ethnic conditions of marriage, regardless of whether or not young people met each other. However today, even though the tradition of asking a girl is still alive among the Uzbeks, its influence and decisive role has decreased sharply. In the research, it has been shown that the tradition of seership in Uzbeks is in a crisis, its functions have changed and its essence has been lost. The fact that people who are unprepared are now sent, and that the tradition of the first meeting of young people is done before the event of looking/asking for a girl, has been shown as proof that this tradition has suffered a crisis in general. As a result, it was explained that with the crisis of the tradition of looking for a girl, more independence was left to the youth. "Looking for a girl" is considered the most difficult tradition psychologically among the wedding traditions, because it requires both the groom and the bride to be able to evaluate each other psicologically. The words and actions of both parties are examined and analyzed by the other party. Today, the high rates of divorce statistics show that arranged marriages not always yield positive results. In general, things that are trivial at first glance can turn out to be the remedial factor. However, in arranged marriages, since the wedding takes place in a short time, more emphasis is placed on external factors, that is, the parents choose the bride or groom according to themselves, their own social status and income, they do not care what the girl and the boy feel towards each other, whether they are suitable for each other or not. Several important conclusions were reached in the study. The tradition of arranged marriage among the Uzbeks emerges as a specific institute and the activity of the matchmakers has an important place in it. The matchmakers' institute, which is still alive in the Fergana valley today, can be compared with special marriage agencies. It is seen that in some regions of Uzbekistan, especially in the Tashkent region, the arranged marriage has undergone a transformation and its meaning has now changed. Here, if the Uzbeks benefited from the services of special matchmakers in the past, their importance has decreased today and people who are not experienced to establish relations with the bride's family are sent as matchmakers. In addition, young people no longer care about the tradition of arranged marriage. Arranged marriage has become very superficial in the last ten years and has turned into an inefficient and ineffective tradition. However, Uzbeks still attach great importance to the arranged marriage and do not hold weddings without following this tradition. The problem of the arranged marriage method, which is still practiced in Uzbekistan today, is that social and economic criteria are leading in choosing brides, and the socio-psychological and individual characteristics of those who are going to start a family are not taken into account. This situation negatively affects the future of young people. GİRİŞ Özbek milli gelenekleri arasında düğün, öncesi çok yönlü, sayısız ritüelleri ve törenleriyle oldukça zengindir. Evlenmenin eşsiz ve kendi zamanına uygun gelenekleri, düğünün çok karmaşık ve aynı zamanda halkçıl olduğuna tanıklık eder. Çok eski zamanlardan bu yana Orta Asya Türklerinde, özellikle de Özbeklerde düğün, görücü usulü ile yapıla gelmiştir ve günümüzde de aynı gelenek devam etmektedir. Görücü usulü Özbeklerin kadim değerlerinden biridir. Gençler birbirleriyle ister önceden tanışıp birbirlerini sevmiş olsun, ister görücülük usulü ile buluşturulmuş olsun, yine de bir elçi olarak dünürcülerin muhakkak gelin evine kız istemeye gitmesi, evlenmenin etnik şartı sayılır. Dünürcülerin kız evine ziyareti Özbeklerde bir düğün sürecinin başladığı anlamına gelir. Görücülük, geçmişteki anaerkil döneme kadar uzanmaktadır. Örneğin M. Kosven'e göre, anaerkil dönemde Kuzey Amerika'nın Algonquin kabilelerinden birinde, bir kız sevdiği genç adama üçüncü bir kişiyi elçi olarak gönderirdi. 1 Genç adam kabul ederse, kız bir ay boyunca her gün gelecekteki kocasına yiyecek getirirdi. Sonra basit bir düğün yapılır, gelinin annesi evinin yanına küçük bir kulübe yapar ve damat gelinin yanına taşınırdı. Anaerkillikte kadınlar aşk ve evlilikte daha aktifti. Bu bağlamda, kadınlar kendileri inisiyatif alır ve onların 1 M.O. Kosven, Ibtidāiy madaniyat tarihidan ocherklar, Taşkent 1960, s. 128.