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Tooling in the die and mould industry is subjected to high-wear and high-temperature environments, which often leads to the premature failure of this high-added-value tooling. When severe damage occurs, an alternative to replacing the whole component consists of the repair by laser-directed energy deposition (L-DED). For that end, intermediate layers are commonly employed as buffer material, where introducing a functionally graded material (FGM) might be beneficial to avoid materialdoi:10.3390/app11020771 fatcat:qwcogxs7ezdbfakaoesmifulru