Local Search Heuristics for k-Median and Facility Location Problems

Vijay Arya, Naveen Garg, Rohit Khandekar, Adam Meyerson, Kamesh Munagala, Vinayaka Pandit
2004 SIAM journal on computing (Print)  
We analyze local search heuristics for the metric k-median and facility location problems. We define the locality gap of a local search procedure for a minimization problem as the maximum ratio of a locally optimum solution (obtained using this procedure) to the global optimum. For k-median, we show that local search with swaps has a locality gap of 5. Furthermore, if we permit up to p facilities to be swapped simultaneously, then the locality gap is 3 + 2/p. This is the first analysis of a
more » ... l search for k-median that provides a bounded performance guarantee with only k medians. This also improves the previous known 4 approximation for this problem. For uncapacitated facility location, we show that local search, which permits adding, dropping, and swapping a facility, has a locality gap of 3. This improves the bound of 5 given by M. Korupolu, C. Plaxton, and R. Rajaraman [Analysis of a Local Search Heuristic for Facility Location Problems, Technical Report 98-30, DIMACS, 1998]. We also consider a capacitated facility location problem where each facility has a capacity and we are allowed to open multiple copies of a facility. For this problem we introduce a new local search operation which opens one or more copies of a facility and drops zero or more facilities. We prove that this local search has a locality gap between 3 and 4.
doi:10.1137/s0097539702416402 fatcat:x3aew4w54jc4jexa6jf4bt65ga