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The widespread role of pili as colonization factors in pathogens has long been recognized in Gramnegative bacteria and more recently in Gram-positive bacteria, making the study of these hair-like filaments a perennial hot topic for research. No other pili are found in as many or as diverse bacteria as type IV pili. This is likely a consequence of their ancient origin and unique ability to promote multiple and strikingly different phenotypes such as attachment to surfaces, aggregation, uptake ofdoi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06197.x pmid:18399938 fatcat:lwdbz2lgpvainew3bnqpq64nii