Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture

Saroj Singh
Global climatic changes can affect agriculture through their direct and indirect effects on the crops, soils, livestock and pests. An increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide level will have a fertilization effect on crops with C3 photosynthetic pathway and thus will promote their growth and productivity. The increase in temperature, depending upon the current ambient temperature, can reduce crop duration, increase crop respiration rates, alter photo-synthase partitioning to economic products,
more » ... onomic products, affect the survival and distribution of pest populations, hasten nutrient mineralization in soils, decrease fertilizer-use efficiencies, and increase evapo-transpiration rate. Indirectly, there may be considerable effects on land use due to snowmelt, availability of irrigation water, frequency, and intensity of inter-and intra-seasonal droughts and floods, soil organic matter transformations, soil erosion, changes in pest profiles, decline in arable areas due to submergence of coastal lands, and availability of energy. Equally important determinants of food supply are socioeconomic environment, including government policies, capital availability, prices and returns, infrastructure, land reforms, and inter and intra-national trade that might be affected by the climatic change.