Finite-size effects from general covariance and Weyl anomaly
Arne Dettki, Andreas Wipf
Nuclear Physics B
By exploiting the diffeomorphism invariance we relate the finite size effects of massless theories to their Weyl anomaly. We show that the universal contributions to the finite size effects are determined by certain coefficient functions in the heat kernel expansion of the related wave operators. For massless scalars confined in a 4-dimensional curved spacetime with boundary the relevant coefficients are given – confirming the results of Moss and Dowker and also of Branson and Gilkey. We apply
... he general results to theories on bounded regions in two- and four-dimensional flat space-times and determine the change of the effective action under arbitrary conformal deformations of the regions.