Effect of Auditory Waiting Cues on Time Estimation in Speech Recognition Telephony Applications
International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction
Previous empirical research in subjective time estimation and applied work in auditory interface design imply that designers can use auditory stimuli during system processing to manipulate users' perception of its duration. Two experiments investigate the effect of system response time (SRT) duration and rate of change of an auditory waiting cue on participants' subjective time estimates and perceived affect. The results showed that perceived SRT duration and ratings of perceived anxiety,
... , and impatience increased as ticking rate increased. However, with a slow rate (2-sec ticking), participants underestimated the duration of SRT, but indicated a significant increase in negative affect as compared with silent conditions. These results suggest that interface designers may reduce the subjective duration and negative affective states of SRT through carefully chosen, slow tempo system processing tones. The results of this research also stress the importance of thoughtful, informed interface design that makes contact with the empirical literature of the cognitive sciences. Effect of Auditory Waiting Cues 433 FIGURE 2 Auditory stimulus-actual system response time (SRT) interaction by gender and age (A = 3 sec, B = 8 sec, C = 13 sec, D = 18 sec). Effect of Auditory Waiting Cues 439 FIGURE 7 Ratio of perceived-actual system response time (SRT; Experiments 1 and 2).