Interrelationships between Multiple Climatic Factors and Incidence of Foodborne Diseases
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Climatic factors can affect the incidence of foodborne diseases (FBDs). Moreover, microbial network inference is useful for predicting the interrelationships between the incidence of FBDs and climatic factors. However, the interrelationships between FBD pathogens and most climatic factors are unknown. Using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial correlation coefficient matrices (PCCMs), we determined the intra-ecosystem interrelationship network of the multiple combined effects of 5
... ed effects of 5 climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, insolation, and cloudiness) and the monthly incidences of 12 bacterial FBDs. Many FBD pathogens are interrelated with multiple combined factors. Salmonellosis has strong positive interrelationships with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, and the interrelationships between Staphylococcus aureus/enteropathogenic E. coli/enterotoxigenic E. coli exhibits a typical triangular pattern with the combined effects of all 5 climatic factors. Meanwhile, campylobacteriosis and Clostridium perfringens infections are negatively interrelated with insolation and cloudiness. Enteroinvasive E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Listeria spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica are significantly interrelated with any climatic factor combination. The interrelationships or higher-order interrelationships among these climatic factors play an important role in the incidence of FBDs, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our results will serve as a foundation for more sophisticated models of future FBD patterns with regard to climate change.