Burnham's Improved Turbine Water Wheel

1869 Scientific American  
IlIlproved Two-Wheeled velocI�cde. .in thlj siredon Iiltate, like the MexicQ,ll anlotl, thIne !laD. be lit-the register gate. ' If the latter be one-fourth open the wheel delivers one-fourth of its whole power; if, with one half, it moves with one-half its power. The case is one casting, with the waterways and chutes formed by cores. Outside of this is the register gate, entirely surrou.nding the case, and having apertures correspondin g to those in the case, for admitting water to the wheel.
more » ... ter to the wheel. This gate can be moved by means of a hand wheel, pinion, and segment, sufficiently to cover the inlets or ports in the case, when the water will be entirely shut off . The bottom of the case con tains a spider or bridge, that holds the box or step for the wheel shaft, and the top is covered with a cap, the top of which holds the box, that steadies the shaft. A concave hub, its largest diameter uppermost, is keyed to the shaft, and to its outside the buckets that form the wheel are bolted. The buckets are straight or vertical, for about half their length, or as far as the hub is concave, theI\ curved to suit the velocity of the watllr. The water, whether the �tll is IIntirely open © 1869 SCIENllFIC AMERICAN, INC, the horse and his rider." In the island of Madagascar were known birds very much larger than the ostrich of the present day whose egg was thirteen and a half inches in length and four inches in; diameter. He came next to animals that live on the surface of the sea, like whales and others. This species in the full grown state, are but embryonic of a higher state of life. The various animals, ranging from the lower order to the high er order were then described by representations on the chart and by the interesting descriptions of the lecturer, touching upon them in their order-the opossum of Virginia, the kan garoo of New Holland and others of the same species. After these came the armadillo, filling up a gap between the lower orders of animals and those of a higher state. The latter were represented in the later portion of the tertiary age. The lec turer then referred to another species of the tertiary age-ani mals called the tapirs, of Southern Asia and South America, though these animals, apparently alike in the two distant countries, were not altogether of a similar species. Cu vier re constructed many of the animals that have passed away-re constructed them by putting together the jaw bones and shoul der blades. This was all that was requisite to an anatomist in natural history. As an architect could tell by finding the cap ital or base of aCorinthian pillar that the ruin before him was formerly of Corinthian architecture, so could the naturalist tell from a few bones to what species defunct animals belonged. , The next animal represented was the rhinoceros, which bore some rese;mblance to the larger reptile of another age. The reptile of which the rhinoceros was a certain type had also Il horn. This was one of the larger reptiles. The lecturer then presented on his chart the cow, the lion, and finally man, the great and crowning work of the creation. On the chart were presented excellent life-like busts of the two candidates at the late election for the Presidency-Seymour and General Grant . After them came the White House, the �oal to w weh they had, .JANUARY 8, 1t;69.] on different tracks, been aiming at, and after this came the Capitol. These representations were very fine and elicited the plaudits of the audience. The lecturer then closed and the au dience then separated.
doi:10.1038/scientificamerican01091869-20 fatcat:sgyj4ocbvbhe7an2qerqk5wy2q