Numerical modeling of subduction: State of the art and future direction
During the past five decades, numerical modeling of subduction, one of the most challenging and captivating geodynamic processes, remained in the core of geodynamic research. Remarkable progress has been made in terms of both in-depth understanding of different aspects of subduction dynamics and deciphering the diverse and ever-growing array of subduction zone observations. However, numerous key questions concerning subduction remain unanswered defining the frontier of modern Earth Science
... rch. This review of the past decade comprises numerical modeling studies focused on 12 key open topics: • Subduction initiation • Subduction termination • Slab deformation, dynamics, and evolution in the mantle • 4D dynamics of subduction zones • Thermal regimes and pressure-temperature (P-T) paths of subducted rocks • Fluid and melt processes in subduction zones • Geochemical transport, magmatism, and crustal growth • Topography and landscape evolution • Subduction-induced seismicity • Precambrian subduction and plate tectonics • Extra-terrestrial subduction • Influence of plate tectonics for life evolution. Future progress will require conceptual and technical progress in subduction modeling as well as crucial inputs from other disciplines (rheology, phase petrology, seismic tomography, geochemistry, numerical theory, geomorphology, ecology, planetology, astronomy, etc.). As in the past, the multi-physics character of subduction-related processes ensures that numerical modeling will remain one of the key quantitative tools for integration of natural observations, developing and testing new hypotheses, and developing an in-depth understanding of subduction. The review concludes with summarizing key results and outlining 12 future directions in subduction and plate tectonics modeling that will target unresolved issues discussed in the review.