Natural Co-Occurrence of Aflatoxins, Cyclopiazonic Acid, and their Production by Aspergillus Flavus Isolates from Corn Grown in Egypt
Advances in Clinical Toxicology
Mycotoxins are metabolites of fungi that can adversely affect animal and human health. Mycotoxins can be produced in corn during storage or processing, but are most frequently associated with fungal infection that occur before harvest. Sixty corn samples were purchased from retail markets from Cairo and Giza Governorates in summer and winter seasons from Egypt. The samples were examined for dominants fungi and mycotoxins Aflatoxins (AFS) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and their Aspergillus flavus
... production. AFS and CPA were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that, the dominants fungi genra were Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Alternaria in all corn samples in summer and winter seasons. From 239 of Aspergillus genus isolates 63.7% was identified as A. flavus, they were tested for AFS and CPA production. The results were showed that only 96 out from 151 A. flavus isolates (63.6%) were positive to AFS and CPA toxins production. The results indicated that 64.6 % from A. flavus isolates were produced both of AFS and CPA. The averages of AFS and CPA production were 9.4 and 12.56 mg /L in YES medium respectively. For natural co-occurrence of AFS and CPA in corn samples, the results indicated that 9 samples out from 30 (30.0%) and 7/30 (23.3%) from corn grain samples collected from Cairo Governorate in winter season were contaminated with both of AFS (B1, B2 ,G1 and G2 ) and CPA , respectively. On the other hand, in summer season 11 samples out from 30 (36.3%) and 8/30 (26.6%) were contaminated with both of AFS (B1, B2 ,G1 and G2 ) and CPA, respectively. The results also indicated that 7 out from 30 (23.3%) and 6/30(20 %) of corn samples collected from Giza Governorate were contaminated with AFs and CPA respectively in winter season. While, 10 samples out from 30 (33.3 %) and 10/30 (33.3 %) samples were contaminated with AFS and CPA in Giza Governorate in summer season respectively. These represent 23.3% and 33.3 % AFS positive samples for corn grain samples collected from Giza Governorate in both season. The concentration of both AFS (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and CPA were ranged from (0.