Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Influence LPS-Induced Inflammation of Fish Macrophages Through Differential Modulation of Pathogen Recognition and p38 MAPK/NF-κB Signaling

Qingfei Li, Kun Cui, Mengjiao Wu, Dan Xu, Kangsen Mai, Qinghui Ai
2020 Frontiers in Immunology  
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) not only serve as essential nutrients but also function as modulators of the immune response in marine fish. However, their immunomodulatory mechanism is poorly understood given that the underlying regulation of the innate immune response in fish has not been fully elucidated. Hence, study of the innate immunity of fish could help elucidate the mechanism by which PUFAs affect the fish immune response. Here, we used combined transcriptome analysis and in vitro
more » ... experimentation to study the mechanism of LPS-induced inflammation. Transcriptome profiling indicated that LPS elicited strong pro-inflammatory responses featuring high expression levels of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) and cytokines along with the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. The transcription factor p65 alone could increase the transcription of IL1β by binding to the promoter of IL1β, and this promoting effect disappeared after mutation or deletion of its binding sites. We then examined the effects of PUFAs on the levels of gene expression and the abundance of proteins of critical kinases associated with LPS-induced inflammation. We found that LA exerts pro-inflammatory response while ALA, EPA, and DHA induced anti-inflammatory effects by modulating the expression of PRRs, phosphorylation of IKK and p38, and the nuclear translocation of p65. Overall, this study advances our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms by which PUFAs regulate LPS-induced inflammation in a non-model fish species.
doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.559332 pmid:33123132 pmcid:PMC7572853 fatcat:5jblxpnj3rhudg4or2dvkxmmdi