Using Bidimensional Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Ultrasound Images to Assess the Effect of Various Walking Intensities on Plantar Soft Tissues

Ben-Yi Liau, Fu-Lien Wu, Keying Zhang, Chi-Wen Lung, Chunmei Cao, Yih-Kuen Jan
<span title="2021-02-24">2021</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="" style="color: black;">Entropy</a> </i> &nbsp;
Walking performance is usually assessed by linear analysis of walking outcome measures. However, human movements consist of both linear and nonlinear complexity components. The purpose of this study was to use bidimensional multiscale entropy analysis of ultrasound images to evaluate the effects of various walking intensities on plantar soft tissues. Twelve participants were recruited to perform six walking protocols, consisting of three speeds (slow at 1.8 mph, moderate at 3.6 mph, and fast at
more &raquo; ... 5.4 mph) for two durations (10 and 20 min). A B-mode ultrasound was used to assess plantar soft tissues before and after six walking protocols. Bidimensional multiscale entropy (MSE2D) and the Complexity Index (CI) were used to quantify the changes in irregularity of the ultrasound images of the plantar soft tissues. The results showed that the CI of ultrasound images after 20 min walking increased when compared to before walking (CI4: 0.39 vs. 0.35; CI5: 0.48 vs. 0.43, p < 0.05). When comparing 20 and 10 min walking protocols at 3.6 mph, the CI was higher after 20 min walking than after 10 min walking (CI4: 0.39 vs. 0.36, p < 0.05; and CI5: 0.48 vs. 0.44, p < 0.05). This is the first study to use bidimensional multiscale entropy analysis of ultrasound images to assess plantar soft tissues after various walking intensities.
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="">doi:10.3390/e23030264</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">pmid:33668190</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">fatcat:pob6vykhv5dtfgqkeglj6spo74</a> </span>
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