Individual and Organization [chapter]

Howard S. Schwartz
Organizations in Depth: The Psychoanalysis of Organizations  
Atmospheric aerosols, suspensions of solid or liquid particles, are an important multiphase system. Aerosols scatter and absorb shortwave (solar) radiation, affecting climate (Charlson et al., 1992; Schwartz, 1996) and visibility; nucleate cloud droplet formation, modifying the reflectivity of clouds (Twomey et al., 1984; Schwartz and Slingo, 1996) as well as contributing to composition of cloudwater and to wet deposition (Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998); and affect human health through inhalation
more » ... hrough inhalation (NRC, 1998). Existing and prospective air quality regulations impose standards on concentrations of atmospheric aerosols to protect human health and welfare (EPA, 1998). Chemical transport and transformation models representing the loading and geographical distribution of aerosols and precursor gases are needed to permit development of effective and efficient strategies for meeting air quality standards, and for examining aerosol effects on climate retrospectively and prospectively for different emissions scenarios. Important aerosol properties and processes depend on their size distribution: light scattering, cloud nucleating properties, dry deposition, and penetration into airways of lungs. The evolution of the mass loading itself depends on particle size because of the size dependence of growth and removal processes. For these reasons it is increasingly recognized that chemical transport and transformation models must represent not just the mass loading of atmospheric particulate matter but also the aerosol microphysical Sulfate over the North Atlantic and adjacent continental regions: Evaluation for October and November 1986 using a three-dimensional model driven by observation-derived meteorology. A positive definite advection scheme obtained by nonlinear renormalization of the advective fluxes, Mon. Weather Rev.,
doi:10.4135/9781446217269.n4 fatcat:6ssh44q3ybez5mu23sah7b6uji