Exposure contrasts of pregnant women during the Household Air Pollution Intervention Network randomized controlled trial [article]

Michael Johnson, Ajay Pillarisetti, Ricardo Piedrahita, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Jennifer L Peel, Kyle Steenland, Lindsay J Underhill, Ghislaine Rosa, Miles A Kirby, Anaite Diaz-Artiga, John McCracken, Maggie L Clark (+14 others)
2021 medRxiv   pre-print
Exposure to PM2.5 arising from solid fuel combustion is estimated to result in approximately 2.3 million premature deaths and 90 million lost disability-adjusted life years annually. 'Clean' cooking interventions attempting to mitigate this burden have had limited success in reducing exposures to levels that may yield improved health outcomes. Objectives: This paper reports exposure reductions achieved by a liquified petroleum gas (LPG) stove and fuel intervention for pregnant mothers in the
more » ... sehold Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN) randomized controlled trial. Methods: The HAPIN trial included 3195 households primarily using biomass for cooking in Guatemala, India, Peru, and Rwanda. 24-hour exposures to PM2.5, carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (BC) were measured for pregnant women once before randomization into control (n=1605) and LPG arms (n=1590) and twice thereafter (aligned with trimester). Changes in exposure were estimated by directly comparing exposures between intervention and control arms and by using linear mixed-effect models to estimate the impact of the intervention on exposure levels. Results: Median exposures of PM2.5, BC, and CO post-randomization in the intervention arm were lower by 66% (70.7 versus 24.0 µg/m3), 71% (9.6 versus 2.8 µg/m3), and 83% (1.2 versus 0.2 ppm), respectively, compared to the control arm. Exposure reductions were similar across research locations. Post-intervention PM2.5 exposures in the intervention arm were at the lower end of what has been reported for LPG and other clean fuel interventions, with 69% of PM2.5 samples falling below the WHO Annual Interim Target 1 of 35 µg/m3. Discussion: This study indicates that an LPG intervention with high displacement of traditional cooking can reduce exposures to levels thought to be associated with health benefits. Success in reducing exposures was likely due to strong performance of, and high adherence to the intervention. Keywords (5-8): Liquefied petroleum gas, clean cooking, intervention, exposure assessment, PM2.5
doi:10.1101/2021.11.04.21265938 fatcat:4gxonpuuazc2blucxr35nx7tr4