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Traumatic Brain Injury and Blood–Brain Barrier (BBB): Underlying Pathophysiological Mechanisms and the Influence of Cigarette Smoking as a Premorbid Condition
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the most pressing global health issues and prevalent causes of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders all over the world. In addition to the brain injury, TBI may also alter the systemic immune response. Thus, TBI patients become vulnerable to infections, have worse neurological outcomes, and exhibit a higher rate of mortality and morbidity. It is well established that brain injury leads to impairments of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity anddoi:10.3390/ijms21082721 pmid:32295258 fatcat:5ujpj55b5naafjzxdkorln34xa