Disequilibrium evolution of Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase gene family leads to their functional biodiversity in Gossypium species
Background: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP) is a key enzyme in the plant sucrose synthesis pathway, in the Calvin cycle, and plays an important role in photosynthesis regulation in green plants. However, no systemic analysis of FBPs has been reported in Gossypium species.Results: A total of 41 FBP genes from four Gossypium species were identified and analyzed. These FBP genes were sorted into two groups and seven subgroups. Results revealed that FBP family genes were under purifying selection
... pressure that rendered FBP family members as being conserved evolutionarily, and there was no tandem or fragmental DNA duplication in FBP family genes. Collinearity analysis revealed that a FBP gene was located in a translocated DNA fragment and the whole FBP gene family was under disequilibrium evolution that led to a faster evolutionary progress of the members in G. barbadense and in At subgenome than those in other Gossypium species and in the Dt subgenome, respectively, in this study. Through RNA-seq analyses and qRT-PCR verification, different FBP genes had diversified biological functions in cotton fiber development (two genes in 0 DPA and 1DPA ovules and four genes in 20–25 DPA fibers), in plant responses to Verticillium wilt onset (two genes) and to salt stress (eight genes).Conclusion: The FBP gene family displayed a disequilibrium evolution pattern in Gossypium species, which led to diversified functions affecting not only fiber development, but also responses to Verticillium wilt and salt stress. All of these findings provide the foundation for further study of the function of FBP genes in cotton fiber development and in environmental adaptability.