Crater formation during raindrop impact on sand

Rianne de Jong, Song-Chuan Zhao, Devaraj van der Meer
2017 Physical review. E  
After a raindrop impacts on a granular bed, a crater is formed as both drop and target deform. After an initial, transient, phase in which the maximum crater depth is reached, the crater broadens outwards until a final steady shape is attained. By varying the impact velocity of the drop and the packing density of the bed, we find that avalanches of grains are important in the second phase and hence, affect the final crater shape. In a previous paper, we introduced an estimate of the impact
more » ... of the impact energy going solely into sand deformation and here we show that both the transient and final crater diameter collapse with this quantity for various packing densities. The aspect ratio of the transient crater is however altered by changes in the packing fraction.
doi:10.1103/physreve.95.042901 pmid:28505774 fatcat:svbx5gxbqnb6lad54dygrzkoyi