Ghrelin in gastrointestinal diseases and disorders: A possible role in the pathophysiology and clinical implications (Review)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone, which has been isolated from the stomach. It is localized mostly in endocrine cells in the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach. Ghrelin receptors are expressed equally in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, with a similar level of expression in the mucosal and muscle layers. This peptide hormone has several functions, the most widely known is its growth hormone (GH)-releasing effect. Ghrelin plays an important role in regulating appetite, feeding and energy
... m. It also plays a role in mediating immune response and inflammatory processes. Ghrelin stimulates gastric motility and emptying as well as motility in the small and large intestine. Ghrelin has been reported to be affected in several gastrointestinal diseases/disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease, infectious diseases, functional disorders and diabetes gastroenteropathy. This indicates that ghrelin is involved in the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal diseases/disorders. Several studies have shown that ghrelin and its antagonist are a promising tool for treatment of several gastrointestinal diseases/disorders.