Genome-wide identification and characterization of the metal tolerance protein (MTP) family in grape (Vitis vinifera L.)
Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) play an important role in the transport of metals at the cellular, tissue and whole plant levels. In the present study, 11 MTP genes were identified and these clustered in three major sub-families Fe/Zn-MTP, Zn-MTP, and Mn-MTP, and seven groups, which are similar to the grouping of MTP genes in both Arabidopsis and rice. Vitis vinifera metal tolerance proteins (VvMTP) ranged from 366 to 1092 amino acids, were predicted to be located in the cell vacuole, and had
... ur to six putative TMDs, except for VvtMTP12 and VvMTP1. The VvMTPs had putative cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) domains and the putative Mn-MTPs also had zinc transporter dimerization domains (ZD-domains). V. vinifera Mn-MTPs had gene structures and motif distributions similar to those of the Fe/Zn-MTP and Zn-MTP sub-families. The upstream regions of VvMTP genes had variable frequencies of cis-regulatory elements that could indicate regulation at different developmental stages and/or differential regulation in response to stress. Comparison of the VvMTP coding sequences with known miRNAs found in various plant species indicated the presence of 13 putative miRNAs, with 7 of these associated with VvMTPs. Temporal and spatial expression profiling indicates a potential role for VvMTP genes during growth and development in grape plants, as well as the involvement of these genes in plant responses to environmental stress, especially osmotic stress. The data generated from this study provides a basis for further investigation of the roles of MTP genes in grapes.