PIP2 Influences the Conformational Dynamics of Membrane bound KRAS4b
ABSTRACTKRAS4b is a small GTPase involved in cellular signaling through receptor tyrosine kinases. Activation of KRAS4b is achieved through the interaction with nucleotide exchange factors while inactivation is regulated by through interaction with GTPase activating proteins. The activation of KRAS4b only occurs after recruitment of the regulatory proteins to the plasma membrane thus making the role of the phospholipid bilayer an integral part of the activation mechanism. The phospholipids,
... arily with anionic head groups, interact with both the membrane anchoring hypervariable region and the G-domain, thus influencing the orientation of KRAS at the membrane surface. The orientation of the G-domain at the membrane surface is believed to play a role in the regulation of KRAS activation thus making the lipid protein interaction a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Much of the research has focused on the role of phosphatidyl serine but little has been done regarding the important signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). We report here the use of fluorescence anisotropy decay, atomic force microscopy, and molecular dynamic simulations to show that the presence of PIP2 in the bilayer promotes the interaction of the G-domain with the bilayer surface. The stability of these interactions significantly alters the dynamics of KRAS bound to the membrane indicating a potential role for PIP2 in the regulation of KRAS4b activity.