Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry lean soft tissue hydration: independent contributions of intra- and extracellular water

Marie-Pierre St-Onge, ZiMian Wang, Mary Horlick, Jack Wang, Steven B. Heymsfield
2004 American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism  
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry lean soft tissue hydration: independent contributions of intra-and extracellular water. .-Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) provides a measure of lean soft tissue (LST). LST hydration, often assumed to be constant, is relevant to several aspects of DEXA body composition estimates. The aims of this study were to develop a theoretical model of LST total body water (TBW) content and to examine hydration effects with empirically derived model coefficients and
more » ... hen to experimentally test the model's prediction that, in healthy adults, LST hydration is not constant but varies as a function of extra-and intracellular water distribution (E/I). The initial phase involved TBW/ LST model development and application with empirically derived model coefficients. Model predictions were then tested in a crosssectional study of 215 healthy adults. LST was measured by DEXA, extracellular water (ECW) by NaBr dilution, intracellular water (ICW) by whole body 40 K counting, and TBW by 2 H2O dilution. TBW estimates, calculated as ECW ϩ ICW, were highly correlated with (r ϭ 0.97, SEE ϭ 2.1 kg, P Ͻ 0.001) and showed no significant bias compared with TBW measured by 2 H2O. Model-predicted TBW/ LST was almost identical to experimentally derived values (means Ϯ SD) in the total group (0.767 vs. 0.764 Ϯ 0.028). LST hydration was significantly correlated with E/I (total group, r ϭ 0.30, SEE ϭ 0.027, P Ͻ 0.001). Although E/I increased with age (men, r ϭ 0.48; women, r ϭ 0.37; both P Ͻ 0.001), the association between TBW/LST and age was nonsignificant. Hydration of the DEXA-derived LST compartment is thus not constant but varies predictably with ECW and ICW distribution. This observation has implications for the accuracy of body fat measurements by DEXA and the use of TBW as a means of checking DEXA system calibration.
doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00361.2003 pmid:15238354 fatcat:ec4mdb6eurhgtmczgtkygzqqrm