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As followed by the design concept of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices, the development of dielectric materials with high-k property becomes a crucial for reducing the equivalent oxide thickness. In order to develop the novel dielectric materials, understanding of correlations between electrical properties and chemical nature at metal-oxide interfaces has been an essential topic . To identify this subject, atomic-scale investigation of bulk oxide materials through laser-pulsed atomdoi:10.1017/s1431927616008862 fatcat:rzy27sdzofe67ch2ra5z3qeehe