Three-dimensional subsurface analysis of electromagnetic scattering from penetrable/PEC objects buried under rough surfaces: use of the steepest descent fast multipole method

M. El-Shenawee, C. Rappaport, E.L. Miller, M.B. Silevitch
2001 IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing  
The electromagnetic scattering from a three-dimensional (3-D) shallow object buried under a two-dimensional (2-D) random rough dielectric surface is analyzed in this work. The buried object can be a perfect electric conductor (PEC) or can be a penetrable dielectric with size and burial depth comparable to the free-space wavelength. The random rough ground surface is characterized with Gaussian statistics for surface height and for surface autocorrelation function. The Poggio, Miller, Chang,
more » ... ington, and Wu (PMCHW) integral equations are implemented and extended in this work. The integral equation-based steepest descent fast multipole method (SDFMM), that was originally developed at UIUC, has been used and the computer code based on this algorithm has been successfully modified to handle the current application. The significant potential of the SDFMM code is that it calculates the unknown moment method surface electric and magnetic currents on the scatterer in a dramatically fast, efficient, and accurate manner. Interactions between the rough surface interface and the buried object are fully taken into account with this new formulation. Ten incident Gaussian beams with the same elevation angle and different azimuth angles are generated for excitation as one possible way of having multiple views of a given target. The scattered electric fields due to these ten incident beams are calculated in the near zone and their complex vector average over the multiple views is computed. The target signature is obtained by subtracting the electric fields scattered from the rough ground only from those scattered from the ground with the buried anti-personnel mine. Significant polarization dependency is observed for the PEC object signature compared with that of the penetrable object, which can be used in target discrimination. Moreover, fields scattered above the rough ground experience significantly more distortion than fields transmitted into the ground. Index Terms-Buried-target, computational electromagnetics, fast multipole method (FMM), mine detection, rough surface scattering.
doi:10.1109/36.927436 fatcat:jdi2x4bc7reodbbp7taivlcbz4