The Effects of Meḳāṣıdu's-sharīʿa Thought on Hadith Criticism and Interpretation
Journal Of The Near East Unıversıty Islamıc Research Center
Meḳāṣıdu'ş-şerīʿa Düşüncesinin Hadis Tenkidi ve Yorumuna Etkileri
In this study, we investigated the effect of meḳāṣıdu's-sharīʿa thought, which has become interested again in the field of theology in our age, on the hadiths, which are the second main source of Islamic belief. Since the subject is related to fiqh, kalam and philosophy as well as the methodology of hadith, we have examined the aspects based on fiqh, kalam and philosophy together with the Hadith methodology to the extent that it is relevant to our subject, taking into account the purpose and
... itations of the article. In our study, while examining some examples in which the idea of meḳāṣıd was used in the criticism and interpretation of different narrations, we considered that the examples we chose were of a nature that could show different effects of meḳāṣıd on hadiths. Due to the limitations of our work, we have focused on the effects on the narrations of universal precepts expressed as eḍ-ḍaruriyyātu'l-ḫamsa (five essentials), which are accepted as common values of all true religions' laws. Due to the dispute over whether one of these rules, the "protection of human dignity" rule, can be considered as an independent principle, we examined the principle of protection of human dignity under a separate heading. Considering some problems arising from today's conditions related to the environment and nature, we have seen fit to add the protection of environment as a seventh rule and we have evaluated some examples related to this rule. When these universal principles are examined, it is seen that they have the common values and needs of humanity. Due to these features, these values and needs, which are tried to be protected by the state constitutions and laws in our age, have also become inseparable parts of international texts and treaties. Therefore, if these rules are taken into consideration in the criticism and interpretation of the hadiths and in the theological studies in general, the criticisms and evaluations that follow these rules will be accepted without facing the problem of legitimacy in terms of both faith and national and international law. Although we have concluded that every narration that may be related to these universal precepts should be examined by these generally accepted rules, since the conditions and needs of the past periods have not required such a wide application. Therefore, such examples have remained in limited numbers. Although some narrations that are seen as contrary to these rules have been described as superstitious, the subject of meḳāṣıd has not been treated as a separate subject within the hadith procedure. In addition, although the narrations contrary to these rules were described as superstitious, superstitious hadiths were not given a special place in the terms related to weak hadith. However, in addition to some of the problems of interpretation that have arisen in the hadith studies of our time, new social and political conditions have made it necessary to use such principles more broadly and effectively to solve some of the disputes and problems that arise in hadith interpretation. Therefore, at the end of our study, we have determined the procedure for how these rules can be used in hadith studies. In addition to introducing the ulama's approaches to meḳāṣıdu's-sharīʿa, the study also includes examples that can help them to be used more effectively in today's hadith studies. Induction and comparison methods were used in the study.